Professor Pamela Oliver

Sociology 626 Social Movements

Return to Sociology 626 Home Page email to


Sociology 626 Social Movements

Spring 2004

Reading Assignments & On-Line Reserves


  1. * materials are required. All others are recommended, not required. There are also links to further lists of recommended readings.
  2. Articles in Social Science On-Line reserves are protected by classlist authorization and limited to students enrolled in the class. You will be asked for your UW NetID and password. Test link to Social Science on-line reserves. Most of these are PDF files.
  3. Articles listed as "JSTOR" or "Stable URL" are accessible to anyone recognized as having a UW computer connection. Test link to sample JSTOR article. You will come to a viewing page. You can view on line or click on the download button for download instructions. Downloading first and then printing is MUCH faster than printing directly from JSTOR.
  4. Other articles are physically stored on my web site and are protected by a username and password which has been distributed to class members. Contact me directly if you need to know the password. Test link to sample article in my personal reserves.
Dates Lecture Topics Readings & Lecture Notes Assignments
Jan 21 Course overview, introductions.


J 26-8

I. Introduction. Defining the terrain, examples, theoretical overview. Examples of mobilization.

  1. Read your first book, do your first book report.
  2. * Aldon Morris. A Retrospective on the Civil Rights Movement: Political and Intellectual Landmarks. Annual Review of Sociology 1999. 25:517. This will provide background for the next section. My reserves.
  3. Concepts lecture (PowerPoint)
Feb 3-5

Why people participate: interests and the problem of collective action.

  1. The problem of collective action

  2. Process of mobilization, importance of networks

  3. How attitudes & ideas relate to networks

A. Mobilization Process: some opening examples that raise themes we will revisit. Read these for concrete examples of how mobilization unfolds over time. NOTE: These will be discussed in lecture AFTER I talk about the problem of collective action, but knowing about the cases will help you think about the collective action lecture.

  1. *Bert Klandermans and Dirk Oegema. "Potentials, Networks, Motivations and Barriers: Steps Toward Participation in Social Movements." ASR 52 (1987): 519-532. Data on mobilization for a Dutch peace march. PDF File Stable URL
  2. *Jo Freeman. The Origins Of The Women's Liberation Movement, American Journal of Sociology 1973. Stable URL:).PDF file Overview of mobilization 1960-1970, with a boxed chronology through 1982. Emphasis on cooptable networks and a precipitating crisis.
  3. *Kristin G. Esterberg. "From Accommodation to Liberation: A Social Movement Analysis of Lesbians in the Homophile Movement" Gender and Society, Vol. 8, No. 3, This Issue Is Devoted to: Sexual Identities/Sexual Communities. (Sep., 1994), pp. 424-443. Stable URL PDF file
  4. My notes on what to look for in these articles: RTF (word processor) file OR PDF file

B. Interests and the problem of collective action

  1. "Collective Action" lecture notes 1) PDF file with text + graphics, includes everything in the other two options. 2) RTF file text only, 3) PDF file graphics only
  2. Words & theory: beyond rationality & irrationality (Power Point slides)
  3. * Mancur Olson, The Logic of Collective Action, (1965) Introduction and Chapter 1. Still very widely cited as true, despite extensive critical literature since its publication. We will summarize this argument in class, as well as why it is misleading. Not necessary to memorize equations, you are reading for the thrust of the argument. PDF copy
  4. Oliver's proof that Olson's equations are independent of group size (this is in case you want to know; not required reading)
  5. Not required: Link to a long list of collective action theory & research articles (graduate seminar page) Useful if you want to do further reading in this topic.

C. Motivations, attitudes. A concern has been why people support movements that do not appear to be in their material interest. (I cut some topics in working around the missing book, as I decided they were not interesting enough to be worth finding replacement articles.)

  1. My notes on required readings in this section: RTF file PDF file
  2. Slides on "reading article tables/graphs" PowerPoint PDF file
  3. Doug McAdam. Recruits To Civil Rights Activism (From Freedom Summer). There are five journal articles that give much more specific details than this short selection. The first is the most general.
    1. * Recruitment to High-Risk Activism: The Case of Freedom Summer. Doug McAdam. The American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 92, No. 1. (Jul., 1986), pp. 64-90. Stable URL: PDF file (local)
    2. The Biographical Consequences of Activism Doug McAdam American Sociological Review, Vol. 54, No. 5. (Oct., 1989), pp. 744-760. Stable URL: How Freedom Summer changed people.
    3. Social Networks and Social Movements: Multiorganizational Fields and Recruitment to Mississippi Freedom Summer. Roberto M. Fernandez; Doug McAdam Sociological Forum, Vol. 3, No. 3. (Summer, 1988), pp. 357-382. Stable URL:
    4. Specifying the Relationship Between Social Ties and Activism. Doug McAdam; Ronnelle Paulsen. The American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 99, No. 3. (Nov., 1993), pp. 640-667. Stable URL:
    5. Gender as a Mediator of the Activist Experience: The Case of Freedom Summer. Doug McAdam. The American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 97, No. 5. (Mar., 1992), pp. 1211-1240. Stable URL:
  4. *Wood, M. and M. Hughes (1984). "The Moral Basis of Moral Reform: Status Discontent vs. Culture and Socialization as Explanations of Anti-Pornography Social Movement Adherence." American Sociological Review 49(1 Feb): 86-99. Analysis of survey data to show that socialization and culture are more important than economic factors. JSTOR Stable URL Local PDF file

Feb 10-12

Identities, emotions, commitment: how people feel attached to movements.

Key themes are importance of collective processes, the emotional problems of overcoming fear & oppression, role of small groups.

D. Identities, emotions, commitment processes. How do people come to feel tied to a movement? What are the collective processes involved in building solidarity and opposition?

  1. Lecture & reading notes (RTF file that was also emailed to class members)
  2. * Eric L. Hirsch. Sacrifice For The Cause: Group Processes, Recruitment, And Commitment In A Student Social Movement, American Sociological Review. My reserves
  3. * Morris, A. and N. Braine (2001). "Social movements and oppositional consciousness." Oppositional consciousness: the subjective roots of social protest. J. Mansbridge and A. Morris. Chicago, The University of Chicago Press: 20-37. Argues that liberation movements against domination differ in key ways from social problems movements. Copy in on-line reserves
  4. *Goodwin, J. and S. Pfaff (2001). Emotion work in high-risk social movements: managing fear in the U.S. and East German civil rights movements. Passionate Politics: Emotions and Social Movements. J. Goodwin, J. M. Jasper and F. Polletta. Chicago, The University of Chicago Press: 282-300. High risk activists need to deal with fears of reprisals against self or family. Networks, gatherings, rituals, identities, shaming, guns all helped people deal with fear. PDF file in Social Science reserves
  5. Pfaff, S. (1996). "Collective Identity and Informal Groups in Revolutionary Mobilization: East Germany in 1989." Social Forces 75(1): 91-118. Informal groups were the invisible reservoir of dissent. JSTOR stable URL
  6. Snow, D. A. and L. Anderson (1987). "Identity Work among the Homeless: The Verbal Construction and Avowal of Personal Identities." American Journal of Sociology 92(6): 1336-1371. Processes of identity construction & avowal among 168 homeless street people. JSTOR Stable URL
  7. Goodwin, J. (1997). "The Libidinal Constitution of a High-Risk Social Movement: Affectual Ties and Solidarity in the Huk Rebellion, 1946-1954." American Sociological Review 62(1): 53-69. Family & love relations eroded movement solidarity. My reserves
  8. Link to graduate seminar page with more articles on identities, consciousness & emotions
Book report #1
Feb 17-19

Frames, ideologies: how people define issues and try to persuade others

Key ideas are strategic use of language, differences between ideas of frames, ideology, narrative, discourse.

Case study of abortion debates.

E. The ideas of movements. How do people define issues and try to persuade others? What elements of ideas are important?

  1. Lecture & reading notes
    1. Notes on history & ideas of pro- & anti-abortion movements (summary of Luker & Staggenborg)
    2. Lecture outline on abortion (text of slides)
    3. Lectures notes on frames, narratives, fields
  2. *David Snow et al., "Frame Alignment Processes," American Sociological Review 51 (1986): 464-481. The first and most influential piece: movement actors try to bring their movement's frame into alignment with other's ideas so that they will join or support the movement. JSTOR. PDF local file
  3. Robert Benford. 1993. "Frame Disputes within the Nuclear Disarmament Movement." Social Forces 71: 677-702. Debates inside the peace movement about how they would view their issue and present themselves to others. Stable URL:
  4. * Polletta, F. (1998). ""It Was Like a Fever..." Narrative and Identity in Social Protest." Social Problems 45(2): 137-159, Narratives of the sit-ins helped to constitute "student activist" as a new collective identity & to make high-risk activism attractive. My reserves (.txt file)
  5. * Raka Ray. "Women's Movements and Political Fields" Social Problems 1998. Compares women's movement groups in Bombay and Calcutta, showing how discussion of spouse abuse was shaped by political context. My reserves
  6. Bert Klandermans. 1988. "The Formation and Mobilization of Consensus." International Social Movement Research 1: 173-196. Consensus mobilization is the creation of shared views of movement issues (vs action mobilization to act). Wide-ranging review of functionalist requirements for content of ideologies and sources of communication and credibility. In On-Line Reserves
  7. Robert Benford and David Snow. Framing Processes and Social Movements: An Overview and Assessment. Annual Review of Sociology, 2000, 26, 611-639. Reviews scholarship on collective action frames & framing processes in relation to social movements, with focus on the analytic utility of this literature for understanding social movement dynamics. My Reserves
  8. Cadena-Roa, J. (2002). "Strategic Framing, Emotions, and Superbarrio-Mexico City's Masked Crusader." Mobilization 7(2): 201-216 .A"party mood" that prevailed in a Mexico City social movement organization, the Asamblea de Barrios, created the conditions for the emergence of Superbarrio, a masked crusader for justice who used humor & dramaturgy drawn from wrestling culture to help the urban poor confront the corruption & mismanagement of the Mexican state. Copy in on-line reserves
  9. Link to graduate seminar page with more articles on frames, discourses, narratives
Feb 24-26 Networks & movements

A. Existing Networks link people and organizations and are created by movements.

  1. David Snow, Louis Zurcher, Sheldon Ekland-Olson, "Social Movements: A Microstructural Approach to Differential Recruitment." ASR 45: 787-801. 1980. People are recruited through social networks.
  2. *Staggenborg, S. (1998). "Social Movement Communities and Cycles of Protest: The Emergence and Maintenance of a Local Women's Movement." Social Problems 45(2): 180-204. Movement communities developed as a context, communities maintain movements.
  3. * Pamela E. Oliver. 1989. "Bringing the Crowd Back In: The Nonorganizational Elements of Social Movements." Research in Social Movements, Conflict and Change 11: 1-30. Showing how crowds and consciousness can be integrated in collective action and social movement theory. Big PDF file (4MB) Smaller Files (copy of pre-publication manuscript): RTF file PDF file
  4. Roger Gould. 1991. "Multiple Networks and Mobilization in the Paris Commune, 1871." American Sociological Review 45: 787-801. JSTOR Local Copy
  5. Link to graduate seminar page with more articles about networks & mobilizing
  6. Watched video: "Moving the Mountain" about Tiananmen Square protest.
  7. Zhao, Dingxin. "Ecologies of Social Movements: Student Mobilization during the 1989 Prodemocracy Movement in Beijing" American Journal of Sociology; 1998, 103, 6, May, 1493-1529. Networks, space. Emphasis on physical layout of college campuses as central in the mobilization process. JSTOR Local Copy
  8. Dingxin Zhao. "State-Society Relations and the Discourses and Activities of the 1989 Beijing Student Movement" The American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 105, No. 6. (May, 2000), pp. 1592-1632. Stable URL: Compares 1989 movement to two earlier movements in 1919 and 1935. Argues that the 1989 movement escalated because both students and government were making traditional moral appeals.
Mar 1-3 Movement organizations & resources

B. Organizations. Arguments about what is the best form of movement organization, competition between organizations, professionalization.

The theme of this week's readings is organizational structure, with an emphasis on profesionalization of movements.

  1. Lecture notes:
    1. Outline of text in RTF file
    2. Lecture graphics only PDF file
    3. PowerPoint file (combines text & graphics)
  2. Jo Freeman's The Tyranny of Structurelessness. For March 3 discussion.
    1. Web page copy
    2. Word document for download
  3. John McCarthy and Mayer Zald. The Trend of Social Movements in America: Professionalization and Resource Mobilization. (1973) Thirty years later, it is an interesting historical retrospective. The "parts" are arbitrarily broken, but there are different themes in each section. It is exploring reasons for the intense movement mobilization of the 1960s. Part 1 reviews and dismisses a variety of explanations focuses on a "participation revolution" and concludes that the key is more students with discretionary time; it is NOT very relevant to this section. Part 2 is most linked to issues of organization, with a lot of emphasis on money for movements, professional activists and movement careers. There is also a short section on the increasing use of mass media by movements. Part 3 continues the professionalization theme and asks whether movements will be shaped by the interests of those with money. Link to Social Science Library On-Line Reserves Local Reserves: (Part1) (Part 2) (Part3)
  4. John McCarthy and Mayer Zald. "Resource Mobilization and Social Movements." American Journal of Sociology 82 (May, 1977): 1212-1242. Lots of hypotheses derived from notion that only resources matter; some are clearly wrong, others are quite useful. Stable URL link to JSTOR: (Local Reserves)From the introduction: "The resource mobilization perspective adopts as one of its underlying problems Olson's (1965) challenge: since social movements deliver collective goods, few individuals will 'on their own' bear the costs of working to obtain them. Explaining collective behavior requires detailed attention to the selection of incentives, cost-reducing mechanisms or structures, and career benefits that lead to collective behavior (see, especially, Oberschall 1973)."
  5. *J. Craig Jenkins and Craig M. Eckert. "Channeling Black Insurgency: Elite Patronage and Professional Social Movement Organizations in the Development of the Black Movement." American Sociological Review 51 (Dec. 1986): 812-829. Stable URL link to JSTOR: Local CopyGrant money went to more professionalized organizations & was a response to mass insurgency, but did not destroy the movement.
  6. Herbert Haines. "Black Radicalization and the Funding of Civil Rights: 1957-1970" MS 440-449. Social Problems 32: 31-43. 1984. Link to Social Science Library On-Line Reserves Focus is on changes in the capacity of moderate organizations to mobilize monetary resources from extramovement groups during periods in which other movement organizations are becoming increasingly radical.
  7. Suzanne Staggenborg. 1988. "The Consequences of Professionalization and Formalization in the Pro-Choice Movement." American Sociological Review 53 (Aug): 585-606. Professionals and entrepreneurs are different roles. Entrepreneurs found movement organizations, professionals stabilize them. Comparative study of many organizations. Stable URL in JSTOR
  8. Verta Taylor. 1989. "Social Movement Continuity: The Women's Movement in Abeyance." American Sociological Review 54 (Oct): 761-775. Abeyance structures are how the movement survives in downtimes. Reprinted in MS 409-420 or BC 423-440 Stable URL link to JSTOR:
  9. Link to graduate seminar page with more articles about organizations & resources
  10. Link to graduate seminar page on transnational movement organizations
March 3 Book report #2 due
Mar 8-10 Wrap up, exam Exam 1 Overview (Word document) Exam 1
  Spring Break   -
March 22-24 Overview of Civil Rights Movement & Student Activism

Lecture will cover history of US Black movement. Students who wish may attend the student activism retrospective panel on March 24.

Lecture outline of US Black Movement

Mar 29-31 Political opportunities & openings: Continue discussion of Black movement, review general theories, discuss application to movements of students' interest. We will also take time in Wednesday's class to set up the film we will watch on Monday April 5.

C. Relations between movements and political openings, elite divisions, external allies, internal resources.

This part of the course is centrally concerned with how the social structure of resources, capacities, and opportunities affects both the possibilities of mobilization and the possibilities for success (which affect each other!). Research of the 1970s argued for the importance of resources & opportunities, not just discontent. Research of the 1990s has tended to stress that resources & opportunities are not simply given, but are perceived and created.

  1. Lecture outline on political opportuniity & resource mobilization readings & theory
  2. You may wish to review Aldon Morris. A Retrospective on the Civil Rights Movement: Political and Intellectual Landmarks. Annual Review of Sociology 1999. 25:517. Pp. 522-25 review "structural conditions."
  3. * J. Craig Jenkins and Charles Perrow. "Insurgency of the Powerless: Farm Worker Movements (1946-1972). American Sociological Rerview 42: 249-268. 1977. One of the early works on importance of elite support, which fed into political opportunity arguments. Summarizes the key arguments of early resource mobilization, gives a major example. In this case, we are focusing less on the quantitative data (correlations) and more on the qualitative argument. Local Copy JSTOR URL
  4. * Marshall Ganz. Another Look At Farmworker Mobilization "Resources and Resourcefulness: Strategic Capacity in the Unionization of California Agriculture, 1959-1966." American Journal of Sociology, 2000, 105, 4, Jan, 1003-1062 . Argues for the importance of strategy and leadership. Compares both the AWOC as well as resources.
    1. Local Copy (includes figure, tables)
    2. Figure1 rotated (to read on screen)
    3. Table 1 rotated (to read on screen)
    4. Table 2 rotated (to be read on screen)
  5. Charles Kurzman. The Iranian Revolution (From Structural And Perceived Opportunity: The Iranian Revolution Of 1979, American Sociological Review 1996.) Perceptions of political situation did not match objective conditions. Local Copy JSTOR URL
  6. David Snyder & Charles Tilly "Hardship and Collective Violence in France, 1830 to 1960." American Sociological Review 37: 520-532 (1972) The article which influenced resource mobilization arguments that deprivation does not cause movements. Local Copy JSTOR URL
  7. James Chowning Davies. "The J-Curve and Power Struggle Theories of Collective Violence." 1974, American Sociological Review 39: 607-610. A response to Snyder and Tilly. JSTOR URL Local copy
    1. Plus Snyder & Tilly's responses to the response. JSTOR URL #1 and another JSTOR URL #2
  8. Jenkins, J. C. and K. Schock (1992). "Global Structures and Political Processes in the Study of Domestic Political Conflict." Annual Review of Sociology 18: 161-185. Combines theories of political process with those of structural adjustment & economic reforms. JSTOR URL
  9. Amenta, E. and M. P. Young (1999). "Democratic States and Social Movements: Theoretical Arguments and Hypotheses." Social Problems 46(2): 153-168. Argues that the US state, comparatively speaking, discourages social mobilization. Local copy PDF of text
  10. Link to graduate seminar page with more articles about political opportunities & constraints
Project #3
Apr 5-7 Case Study of Seattle WTO Protests
  • Video: "This is What Democracy Looks Like" compiles a narrative of the "Battle of Seattle" from footage shot by protesters. Running time 72 minutes. We will watch this in class on Monday April 5.
  • Class on Wednesday April 7 will discuss what we saw in light of readings about this event. WHAT TO READ (#s refer to the list below)
    1. First priority, mainstream news account, #8. Short enough to read quickly.
    2. Second priority, #4 Giilham & Marx article. Text is about 19 pages, the rest is footnotes & references. Although I am less sure about the theoretical idea of irony, the article seems to give a very good account of the complexity and interaction of events from different viewpoints. We will return to this account when we discussion repression etc.
    3. Third priority, #1. Smith article. The organizations, emphasis on transnational connections & globalization. This relates back to discussions of political opportunity and forward to regime/movement interactions as we consider movements that transcend single countries.
    4. Background references on WTO below.
  1. Smith, Jackie. (2001). “Globalizing Resistance: The Battle of Seattle and the Future of Social Movements.” Mobilization 6(1): 1-19. Local copy. This study examines the participants, activities, & political context of the "Battle of Seattle." It explores the transitional activist linkages & suggests that a division of labor was presented whereby groups with local & national ties took on mobilization roles while groups with routinized transnational ties provided information & frames for the struggle.
  2. William Solomon. "More form than substance: Press coverage of the WTO protests in Seattle." Monthly Review May 2000; 52, 1. p. 12. Critiques news coverage in Los Angeles Times and New York Times. Local PDF copy.
  3. JD Charlton. "Talking Seattle!" Radical Society [Socialist Review] 2001, 28, 3/4. p 183. Local PDF copy. A descriptive summary of what happened at the protest and why people were there.
  4. * Patrick Gillham & Gary Marx, "Complexity and Irony in Policing and Protesting: The World Trade Organization in Seattle." Social Justice, Summer 2000, 27, 2 p. 212. Local PDF copy. More of a "birds' eye" view of police & protester decision-making and the unintended consequences of everyone's actions.
  5. Walden Bello. "Lilliputians Rising -- 2000: The Year of Global Protest Agasint Corporate Globalization." Multinational Monitor Jan/Feb 2001; 22, 1/2. Local PDF Copy A summary of issues in the year after Seattle. BIG FILE with pictures.
  6. In These Times, January 10, 2000, SPECIAL REPORT; Pg. 14, 2578 words, AFTER SEATTLE, BY DAVID MOBERG. A commentary on the significance of the event. Text File.
  7. In These Times, January 10, 2000, SPECIAL REPORT; Pg. 18, 940 words, ANARCHY IN THE USA, BY DAVID GRAEBER; Challenges assumptions that anarchists are "violent." Text file.
  8. * Newsweek, December 13, 1999,, U.S. Edition, NATIONAL AFFAIRS; Pg. 30, 1769
    words, The Siege of Seattle, By Kenneth Klee; With Patricia King and Katrina Woznicki. A mainstream news magazine's account. Text file.
  9. Newsweek, December 13, 1999,, U.S. Edition, NATIONAL AFFAIRS; Pg. 36, 1691
    words, The New Radicals, By Michael Elliott; With Keith Naughton in Detroit, John McCormick and Peter Annin in Chicago, Thomas Hayden in New York, Kenneth
    Klee and Patricia King in Seattle, and Debra Gwartney in Eugene. Mainstream news magazine's coverage of the activists. text file
  10. Newsweek International, November 22, 1999, 2241 words, BUSINESS: ATTACKING FREE TRADE: WHY ARE SO MANY GREENS AND WORKERS' RIGHTS ACTIVISTS HEADING FOR SEATTLE? pre-protest coverage. text file
  11. Newsweek, December 6, 1999,, Atlantic Edition, WORLD VIEW; Pg. 4, 910 words, Whose Cause Is It, Anyway?, By Pranay Gupte; Gupte is editor and publisher of The Earth Times. A pre-protest editorial arguing that NGOs are disconnected from their constituencies. text file
  12. The Economist, December 04, 1999, , U.S. Edition, 1308 words, The new trade war, seattle. Short news article, identifies mixture of types of protesters and issues. text file

Background on the WTO

  1. World Trade Organization web site. This public-oriented site describes the structure of the WTO, contains rebuttals to "myths" about the WTO, describes current issues, etc. including defenses of its structure & the value of free trade.
  2. Two anti-WTO sites with lots of information:
    1. Global Exchange, an NGO I don't know much about, seems fairly commercial & professionalized but encouraging anti-WTO activism, with clear layouts and information you can download
    2. Trade Observatory is a web site about WTO & related issues put out by the Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy which describes itself as supporting family farms, rural communities and ecosystems. Its home page lists a number of different projects on agriculture & the environment.
Apr 12-14 Tactics & strategy

V. Tactics/strategies: interactions between movements and their opponents. Repertoires of action, counter-movement pairs, repression dynamics, violence, terrorism

A. What Movements Do

  1. Lecture notes on ideas of repertoires of action & constraints on tactics + an empirical inventory of tactics. Word Processor File
  2. * Review Aldon Morris. A Retrospective on the Civil Rights Movement: Political and Intellectual Landmarks. Annual Review of Sociology 1999. 25:517. My reserves. this time, we pay special attention to pp. 517-527 which sketch the strategies and tactics of the movement.
  3. Saul D. Alinsky. Protest Tactics (From Rules For Radicals). Alinsky was an extremely influential community organizer who founded influential organizationad and wrote many books directed to activists. His "rules" are reprinted on the web in many places, both on activist/anarchist sites AND on business/administration sites which emphasize how to prepare for and respond to Alinskyist tactics.
    1. An example of an anti-activist site for public adminstrators
    2. A pro-activist site listing the "rules"
    3. Professor Steven Hull, Cabrillo College (California), has on-line lecture notes on Saul Alinsky's Rules for Radicals. You have to page down to the bottom of this page to get to the list of Alinksy sections. Link to his "tactics" lecture notes"
  4. Mary Bernstein. The Strategic Uses Of Identity In The Lesbian And Gay Movement: Bernstein, Mary. "Celebration and Suppression: The Strategic Uses of Identity by the Lesbian and Gay Movement." American Journal of Sociology; 1997, 103, 3, Nov, 531-565. Identities as public expressions of yourself which you can deploy for political purposes, stressing either similarity or difference with the dominant group. Local Copy
  5. Tilly, C. (1993). "Contentious Repertoires in Great Britain, 1758-1834." Social Science History 17(2): 253-280. How the forms of protest changed over time.
  6. Tilly, C. (1997). "Parliamentarization of Popular Contention in Great Britain, 1758-1834." Theory and Society 26(2-3, Apr-June): 245-273. Protest became less violent and more organized around parliament.

Link to graduate seminar page with more articles about tactics and interactions

Apr 19-21 Regime responses, repression. Counter-movements.

B. What opponents do: repression, regime responses, counter-movements

Monday April 19 we will complete the discussion of tactical interaction and talk about policing of protest. Wednesday April 21 I will show my "racial disparities in imprisonment" lecture; you can see more about this in the "racial disparities" section of my web site.

  1. Lecture notes on policing
  2. McAdam, Doug (1983). "Tactical Innovation and the Pace of Insurgency." American Sociological Review 48(6): 735-754. PDF File This was a crucial article setting off a lot of this analysis. Argues that upsurges in mobilization are due to tactical innovations, which are brought down by regimes learning how to respond.
  3. Donatella Della Porta and Herbert Reiter, editors. Policing Protest: The Control of Mass Demonstrations in Western Democracies. University of Minnesota Press. 1998. This collection has excellent articles. The following three chapters are on the Social Science Reserves library web site:
    a. *Introduction (della Porta & Reiter, Policing of protest in Western democracies ),
    b. *Chapter 2 (McPhail et al., Policing protest in the United States: 1960-1995 ),
    c. * Chapter 10 (della PortaPolice knowledge and protest policing)
  4. Meyer, D. S. and S. Staggenborg (1996). "Movements, Countermovements, and the Structure of Political Opportunity." American Journal of Sociology 101(6): 1628-1660. Local Copy
  5. White, R. W. (1999). "Comparing State Repression of Pro-State Vigilantes and Anti-State Insurgents: Northern Ireland, 1972-75." Mobilization 4(2): 189-202. Secondary empirical & statistical data are drawn on to compare the repression of pro-state paramilitary violence with that of anti-state insurgent violence in Northern Ireland, 1972-1975. Copy in Social Science Reserves.

Link to graduate seminar page with more articles about tactics and interactions

Apr 26-28   More on policing, TAA strike Project #4
May 3-5 Final discussions A short wrap on policing, and some discussion of media. (see readings below)  
May 10 Final Exam 7:45 a.m. I will email and announce room # and try to remember to post it here Final Exam
  Media & movements

C. News as data, news as actor. The effects of news media on social movements and social movements research.
1. GJ26. The Media In The Unmaking Of The New Left (From The Whole World Is Watching): Todd Gitlin.
2. Todd Gitlin. "News as Ideology and Contested Area: Toward a Theory of Hegemony, Crisis, and Opposition." Socialist Review, no. 9 (Nov.-Dec. 1979): 11-54. A synopsis of the main theoretical argument of his book, The Whole World is Watching, about media coverage of SDS in the 1960s. Similar to the above.
3. Wisler, D. and M. Giugni (1999). "Under the Spotlight: The Impact of Media Attention on Protest Policing." Mobilization 4(2): 171-187.
4. Davenport, C. and M. Eads (2001). "Cued to Coerce or Coercing Cues? An Exploration of Dissident Rhetoric and Its Relationship to Political Repression." Mobilization 6(2): 151-171.
5. McCarthy, J. D., C. McPhail, et al. (1996). "Images of Protest: Dimensions of Selection Bias in Media Coverage of Washington Demonstrations, 1982 and 1991." American Sociological Review 61(3): 478-499.
6. Pamela E. Oliver and Daniel J. Myers. "How Events Enter the Public Sphere: Conflict, Location and Sponsorship in Local Newspaper Coverage of Public Events. American Journal of Sociology 105: 38-87. 1999.
7. "Political Processes and Local Newspaper Coverage of Protest Events: From Selection Bias to Triadic Interactions" (Pamela E. Oliver and Gregory M. Maney) American Journal of Sociology 106 (2 September) 2000: 463-505
8. Mueller, Carol. "International Press Coverage of East German Protest Events, 1989" American Sociological Review; 1997, 62, 5, Oct, 820-832. Comparison of six nations' coverage in light of media selection models.
9. Mueller, Carol. "Media Measurement Models of Protest Event Data." Mobilization; 1997, 2, 2, Sept, 165-184. Mueller, Media measurement models of protest event data
10. Almeida and Lichbach, "To the Internet, From the Internet: Comparative Media Coverage of Transnational Protests." Mobilization In Library Reserves
11. Sampedro, Victor The Media Politics of Social Protest. Mobilization; 1997, 2, 2, Sept, 185-205. Spain, media opportunities usually coincide with political opportunities, but sometimes there is a chance in the media. Sampedro, Media politics of social protest
12. Roscigno, V. J. and W. F. Danaher (2001). "Media and Mobilization: The Case of Radio and Southern Textile Worker Insurgency, 1929 to 1934." American Sociological Review 66(1): 21-48. A nice piece, showing that worker-oriented radio stations facilitated insurgency.
13. William Gamson and Andre Modigliani. 1989. "Media Discourse and Public Opinion on Nuclear power: A Constructionist Approach." American Journal of Sociology 95: 1-37. Analysis of media frames across time + qualitative citing of trends in survey data.

Link to graduate seminar page with more articles about media


  Finals week -- official summary period.   Exam 2
Cycles, diffusion, interactions.

VI. Cycles, diffusion processes, outcomes
A. Successes, effects of movements
1. GJ 315-317 includes a definition of "abeyance" AND GJ 347-9, explains radical flank effects and other issues regarding outcomes.
2. GJ30. William A. Gamson. Defining Movement 'Success' (From The Strategy Of Social Protest):
3. GJ31,. Edwin Amenta, Kathleen Dunleavy, And Mary Bernstein. The Case Of Huey Long And The New Deal (From "Stolen Thunder? Huey Long's Share Our Wealth, Political Mediation, And The Second New Deal") Uses Gamson's categories to discuss the success of a particular movement.
4. David S. Meyer and Nancy Whittier. "Social Movement Spillover." Social Problems 41: 277-298. 1994. How movements affect other movements.
5. Andrews, Kenneth T "The Impacts of Social Movements on the Political Process: The Civil Rights Movement and Black Electoral Politics in Mississippi". American Sociological Review; 1997, 62, 5, Oct, 800-819. Shows that level of Black & White mobilization affected outcomes.
B. Coevolutionary processes
1. Pamela E. Oliver & Daniel J. Myers. "The Coevolution of Social Movements" Mobilization 8: 1-25. 2003.
2. GJ pp257-259 raises issues of the interplay of politics and media in movement support
3. Stephen Ellingson. "Understanding the Dialectic of Discourse and Collective Action: Public Debate and Rioting in Antebellum Cincinnati." American Journal of Sociology 101: 100-144. 1995. Two incidents of mob violence in Cincinnati altered the discursive struggle over abolitionism
4. Steinberg, M. W. (1999). "The Talk and Back Talk of Collective Action: A Dialogic Analysis of Repertoires of Discourse among Nineteenth-Century English Cotton Spinners." American Journal of Sociology 105(3): 736-780. Discourses evolve through rational choice and discursive constraints.
5. Minkoff, Debra C. "The Sequencing of Social Movements." American Sociological Review; 1997, 62, 5, Oct, 779-799. Population ecology model of diffusion of movements, women's movement and black movement are in competitive sequencing.
6. Whittier, Nancy "Political Generations, Micro-Cohorts, and the Transformation of Social Movements". American Sociological Review; 1997, 62, 5, Oct, 760-778. Cohort replacement and movement change.
7. Ruud Koopmans. The Dynamics of Protest Waves: West Germany, 1965 to 1989. American Sociological Review 1993, 58, 5, Oct, 637-658. Cycles of protest in Europe; action repertoires diverge in response to repression.
8. Kim, Q. Y. (1996). "From Protest to Change of Regime: The 4-19 Revolt and the Fall of the Rhee Regime in South Korea" Social Forces, Vol. 74, No. 4. (Jun., 1996), pp. 1179-1208. Economic deprivation began the mobilization, but authorities' violent response and then mobilization of public opinion against the violence created a major upheaval that overthrew the regime.
9. Soule, S. A., D. McAdam, et al. (1999). "Protest Events: Cause or Consequence of State Action? The U.S. Women's Movement and Federal Congressional Activities, 1956-1979." Mobilization 4(2): 239-255. More consequence than cause
10. Karl-Dieter Opp and Wolfgang Roehl. "Repression, Micromobilization, and Political Protest." Social Forces 69: 521-547. 1990. Repression has a direct negative effect on mobilization, but can have an indirect positive effect on protest through radicalization, if the repression is perceived as illegitimate.
11. Markoff, John (1997). "Peasants Help Destroy an Old Regime and Defy a New One: Some Lessons from (and for) the Study of Social Movements." American Journal of Sociology 102(4): 1113-1142. Interactions of elites and insurrectionary mobilization in French revolution.
12. Rasler, Karen "Concessions, Repression, and Political Protest in the Iranian Revolution" American Sociological Review; 1996, 61, 1, Feb, 132-152.
13. Koopmans, Ruud Dynamics of Repression and Mobilization: The German Extreme Right in the 1990s. Mobilization; 1997, 2, 2, Sept, 149-164.
14. Olzak, S., M. Beasley, et al. (2003). "The Impact of State Reforms on Protest against Apartheid in South Africa." Mobilization 8(1): 27-50.
15. Titarenko, L., J. D. McCarthy, et al. (2001). "The Interaction of State Repression, Protest Form and Protest Sponsor Strength during the Transition from Communism in Minsk, Belarus, 1990-1995." Mobilization 6(2): 129-150.

Link to graduate seminar page with more articles about tactics and interactions


NOTE: Assignments below still being edited for on-line; I am waiting to make sure whether the book is coming.

III. How do people understand their grievances and persuade others to participate? Frames, ideologies and other ways of talking about ideas.





Questions or Comments? Email Last updated September 20, 2007 © University of Wisconsin.