Sociology 626 Social Movements
Reading Assignments & On-Line Reserves
- * materials are required. All others are recommended, not required.
There are also links to further lists of recommended readings.
- GJ refers to readings in Goodwin & Jasper, eds., The Social
Movements Reader. It will not be here before Feb. 1. Alternate
readings are suggested and the required readings will be changed
if we decide not to use the book.
- Articles in Social Science On-Line reserves are protected by
classlist authorization and limited to students enrolled in the
class. You will be asked for your UW NetID and password. Test
link to Social Science on-line reserves. Most of these are
- Articles listed as "JSTOR" or "Stable URL"
are accessible to anyone recognized as having a UW computer connection.
link to sample JSTOR article. You will come to a viewing page.
You can view on line or click on the download button for download
instructions. Downloading first and then printing is MUCH faster
than printing directly from JSTOR.
- Other articles are physically stored on my web site and are
protected by a username and password which has been distributed
to class members. Contact me directly if you need to know the
link to sample article in my personal reserves.
Sept 4-6. Introduction. What are we studying? The terrain of social
movements. Examples. Types of movements. Overview of theoretical perspectives
and the questions they address. The political process synthesis. Why the
capacity to protest matters. The two articles on the civil rights movements
will give you background on the civil rights movement. Introductory lectures
will give an overview of the theoretical framework in the context of the
civil rights movement.
- Read your first book, do your first book report.
- * GJ Editors' Introduction (pp.3-7 AND pp 11-14): Jeff Goodwin And
James M. Jasper. Definitions of social movement & protest, why study
movements, quick overview of history of theory/research.* GJ pp. 370-378
"Biographies" of some famous movement activists. Will help
introduce you to social movements.
- Sept 6 & 11, I lectured on introductory concepts; Sept 13 we watched
an episode of Eyes on the Prize
Sept 18. The political context of protest.
- * Meyer (The Politics of Protest), preface, introduction, Chapter
1, Chapter 2. In these two chapters, meyer locates protest and social
movements in a US political context.
notes on these readings (these are my personal cursory notes which you
may compare with yours)
- *GJ1. Rhoda Lois Blumberg.. The Civil Rights Movement (From Civil
Rights: The 1960s Freedom Struggle) Overview of history through the
- * Aldon Morris. A Retrospective on the Civil Rights Movement: Political
and Intellectual Landmarks. Annual
Review of Sociology 1999. 25:517. This will provide background for
the next section.
- *GJ2 Jo Freeman. The Women's Movement. (From The Origins Of The Women's
Liberation Movement, American Journal of Sociology 1973: original available
on web site). Overview of mobilization 1960-1970, with a boxed chronology
through 1982. Emphasis on cooptable networks and a precipitating crisis.
- *GJ3. John D'Emilio. The Gay Liberation Movement (From Sexual Politics,
Sexual Communities: The Making of a Homosexual Minority in the United
States, 1940-1970). This selection focuses on 1969 Stonewall riot through
the 1970s, "gay liberation" and "radical lesbian feminist"
- *GL4, . Charles Kurzman. The Iranian Revolution (From Structural
And Perceived Opportunity: The Iranian Revolution Of 1979, American
Sociological Review 1996.) Perceptions of political situation did not
match objective conditions.
- David Snyder & Charles Tilly
"Hardship and Collective Violence in France, 1830 to 1960."
American Sociological Review 37: 520-532 (1972) The article which
influenced resource mobilization arguments that deprivation does not
- James Chowning Davies. "The
J-Curve and Power Struggle Theories of Collective Violence."
1974, American Sociological Review 39: 607-610. A response to Snyder
II. Sept 20-27 Why do people participate? Interests, motivations, identities.
A. Interests and the problem of collective action Sept 20
- * Mancur Olson, The Logic
of Collective Action, (1965) Introduction and Chapter 1. Still very
widely cited as true, despite extensive critical literature since its
publication. You need to know what he said, as well as know why his
argument is misleading (which we will discuss in class).
- Oliver’s lecture summary of production function issues and other
critiques "Collective Action" lecture notes 1) PDF
file with text + graphics, includes everything in the other two
options. 2) RTF file text
only, 3) PDF
file graphics only
proof that Olson's equations are independent of group size (this
is in case you want to know; not required reading)
- "Words and Theories"
Short notes on the history of "collective behavior," "collective
action," "collective event" and remarks on the falsity
of the "rational vs. irrational" dichotomy
- Not required: Link
to a long list of collective action theory & research articles (graduate
seminar page) Useful if you want to do further reading in this topic.
B. Mobilization Process: some opening examples that raise themes we
will revisit. Read these for concrete examples of how mobilization unfolds
over time. Note: Read Klandermans and Oegema for Sept 20 and meyer for
- *meyer, Chapter 3 “Becoming an Activist”. An overview.
- *Bert Klandermans and Dirk Oegema.
"Potentials, Networks, Motivations and Barriers: Steps Toward
Participation in Social Movements." ASR 52 (1987): 519-532. Data
on mobilization for a Dutch peace march.
- Slides on "reading article tables/graphs" for the Klandermans
& Oegema and Wood & Hughes articles PowerPoint
notes about the "main points" in Klandermans & Oegema,
Freeman, and Wood & Hughes articles
C. Motivations, attitudes. A concern has been why people support
movements that do not appear to be in their material interest. Sept 25
NOTE: Actually discussed Sept 27, except Wood & Hughes discussed Sept
- * GL pp. 51-54 editors' comment on reasons for joining combines material
in this section on networks with material in the next section on frames.
Retrospective Lecture Notes for Sept 27 My notes on what happened
in this class.
- * GJ5. Doug McAdam. Recruits To Civil Rights Activism (From Freedom
Summer). This is a synopsis of a larger stream of work. The following
optional articles give much more detail.
- Recruitment to High-Risk Activism: The Case of Freedom Summer. Doug
McAdam. The American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 92, No. 1. (Jul., 1986),
pp. 64-90. (I will spend a lot of time on this in class)
- The Biographical Consequences of Activism Doug McAdam American Sociological
Review, Vol. 54, No. 5. (Oct., 1989), pp. 744-760. How Freedom Summer
- * GJ6. Ronald Inglehart. Changing Values In Post-Industrial Societies
(From The Silent Revolution). Argues that the current period is post-materialist
in its concerns.
- * GJ7. Steven Cotgrove And Andrew Duff. Middle-Class Radicalism And
Environmentalism (From Environmentalism, Middle Class Radicalism And
Politics, The Sociological Review 1980). Survey of British environmentalists,
builds on Inglehart, shows that a movement can be middle-class based
without expressing middle-class interests.. Page 73 includes a chronology
of the US environmental movement.
- * GJ8. James A. Aho. “Christian Patriots” (From The Politics
Of Righteousness: Idaho Christian Patriotism). His argument is that
perceptions of deprivation or threat are filtered through people's religious
- *Wood, M. and M. Hughes (1984). “The Moral Basis of Moral Reform:
Status Discontent vs. Culture and Socialization as Explanations of Anti-Pornography
Social Movement Adherence.” American Sociological Review 49(1
Feb): 86-99. Analysis of survey data to show that socialization and
culture are more important than economic factors. [I will summarize
this in class and go over the tables] . JSTOR
Stable URL Local PDF
- Oliver's at times cryptic notes
on McAdam Inglehart, Cotgrove, Aho
D. Identities, emotions, commitment processes. How do people
come to feel tied to a movement? Sept 27. Rescheduled to October
- *GJ pp 91-3 editors' comments. Definition of "collective identity"
on p. 103.
notes on October 2 on Hirsch, Whittier, Klandermans
- My notes on Hirsch, Morris &
Braine (below), Goodwin & Pfaff (fear), and Klandermans (leaving).
I'll be using some of these slides in the Oct 4 class.
- * GJ9, . Eric L. Hirsch. Generating Commitment Among Students (From
Sacrifice For The Cause: Group Processes, Recruitment, And Commitment
In A Student Social Movement, American Sociological Review, full article
- * GJ10. Nancy Whittier. Sustaining Commitment Among Radical Feminists
(From Feminist Generations).
- * GJ11. Bert Klandermans. Disengaging From Movements (From The Social
Psychology Of Protest)
- * GJ28. Barbara Epstein. The Decline Of The Women's Movement (From
What Happened To The Women's Movement? Monthly Review 2001). Feminist
ideas are broadly accepted, but the movement itself has declined.
- *Goodwin, J. and S. Pfaff (2001). Emotion work in high-risk social
movements: managing fear in the U.S. and East German civil rights movements.
Passionate Politics: Emotions and Social Movements. J. Goodwin, J. M.
Jasper and F. Polletta. Chicago, The University of Chicago Press: 282-300.
High risk activists need to deal with fears of reprisals against self
or family. Networks, gatherings, rituals, identities, shaming, guns
all helped people deal with fear. PDF
file in Social Science reserves
- Pfaff, S. (1996). "Collective Identity and Informal Groups in
Revolutionary Mobilization: East Germany in 1989." Social Forces
75(1): 91-118. Informal groups were the invisible reservoir of dissent.
- Snow, D. A. and L. Anderson (1987). "Identity Work among the
Homeless: The Verbal Construction and Avowal of Personal Identities."
American Journal of Sociology 92(6): 1336-1371. Processes of identity
construction & avowal among 168 homeless street people. JSTOR
- Goodwin, J. (1997). "The Libidinal Constitution of a High-Risk
Social Movement: Affectual Ties and Solidarity in the Huk Rebellion,
1946-1954." American Sociological Review 62(1): 53-69. Family &
love relations eroded movement solidarity. My
- Link to graduate
seminar page with more articles on identities, consciousness & emotions
IV. How do people understand their grievances and persuade others to
participate? Frames, ideologies and other ways of talking about
ideas. October 4 - 11.
For October 4
- Meyer (chapter 2) pp. 40-43. Ideas in movements. A critique of the
"great books" idea of how movements; emphasis on reception
context. This is basically an introductory overview
- *David Snow et al., "Frame
Alignment Processes," ASR 51 (1986): 464-481. Movement actors
try to bring their movement's frame into alignment with other's ideas
so that they will join or support the movement.
- * Morris, A. and N. Braine (2001). "Social movements and oppositional
consciousness." Oppositional consciousness: the subjective roots
of social protest. J. Mansbridge and A. Morris. Chicago, The University
of Chicago Press: 20-37. Argues that liberation movements against domination
differ in key ways from social problems movements. Copy
in on-line reserves
- Lecture & reading notes
- Lectures notes on frames, narratives,
fields Snow et al, Superbarrio, Poletta, Ray (listed below)
- Robert Benford. 1993. "Frame Disputes within the Nuclear Disarmament
Movement." Social Forces 71: 677-702. Debates inside the peace
movement about how they would view their issue and present themselves
to others. Stable
- Polletta, F. (1998). ""It Was Like a Fever..." Narrative
and Identity in Social Protest." Social Problems 45(2): 137-159,
Narratives of the sit-ins helped to constitute "student activist"
as a new collective identity & to make high-risk activism attractive.
My reserves (.txt
- Bert Klandermans. 1988. "The Formation and Mobilization of Consensus."
International Social Movement Research 1: 173-196. Consensus mobilization
is the creation of shared views of movement issues (vs action mobilization
to act). Wide-ranging review of functionalist requirements for content
of ideologies and sources of communication and credibility. In
- Robert Benford and David Snow. Framing Processes and Social Movements:
An Overview and Assessment. Annual Review of Sociology, 2000, 26, 611-639.
Reviews scholarship on collective action frames & framing processes
in relation to social movements, with focus on the analytic utility
of this literature for understanding social movement dynamics. My
- Link to graduate seminar
page with more articles on frames, discourses, narratives
For October 9
- * GJ13. Kristin Luker. Word Views Of Pro- And Anti-Abortion Activists
(From Abortion And The Politics Of Motherhood) This selection emphasizes
the prolife rather than prochoice views (which are both treated in the
book); lecture will expand upon this discussion.
- Notes on history & ideas of pro-
& anti-abortion movements (summary of Luker & Staggenborg)
- Lecture outline on abortion
(text of slides)
- * GJ14. Jane J. Mansbridge. Ideological
Purity In The Women's Movement (From Why We Lost The ERA) This selection
might give the impression that the whole women's movement became "purist,"
but she captures a significant tendency of the 1970s.
- * GJ15. James M. Jasper The Emotions Of Protest (From The Emotions
Of Protest: Affective and Reactive Emotions in and around Social Movements.
Sociological Forum, 1998, 13, 3, Sept, 397-424) An overview.
- * GL33. Ron Eyerman And Andrew Jamison. Movements And Cultural Change
(From Music And Social Movements):
- Raka Ray. "Women's Movements and Political Fields"
Social Problems 1998. Compares women's movement groups in Bombay and
Calcutta, showing how discussion of spouse abuse was shaped by political
context. My reserves
- Cadena-Roa, J. (2002). "Strategic Framing, Emotions, and Superbarrio-Mexico
City's Masked Crusader." Mobilization 7(2): 201-216 .A"party
mood" that prevailed in a Mexico City social movement organization,
the Asamblea de Barrios, created the conditions for the emergence of
Superbarrio, a masked crusader for justice who used humor & dramaturgy
drawn from wrestling culture to help the urban poor confront the corruption
& mismanagement of the Mexican state. Copy
in on-line reserves
- Stephen Ellingson. "Understanding the Dialectic of Discourse
and Collective Action: Public Debate and Rioting in Antebellum Cincinnati."
American Journal of Sociology 101: 100-144. 1995. Two incidents of mob
violence in Cincinnati altered the discursive struggle over abolitionism
- Steinberg, M. W. (1999). “The Talk and Back Talk of Collective
Action: A Dialogic Analysis of Repertoires of Discourse among Nineteenth-Century
English Cotton Spinners.” American Journal of Sociology 105(3):
736-780. Discourses evolve through rational choice and discursive constraints.
October 11: Continue discussions
V. Social Structure. Mobilization depends upon the social organization
of the people. October 16-25.
A. Existing Networks link people and organizations and are created
by movements. (Oct 16)
- * Meyer, Chapter 4, “Individuals, Movements, Organizations,
and Coalitions” ALSO * Meyer Ch2 pp. 24-40 about organizations.
- *GJ2 REVIEW Jo Freeman. The Women's Movement. (From The Origins Of
The Women's Liberation Movement, American Journal of Sociology 1973:
original available on web site). Overview of mobilization 1960-1970,
with a boxed chronology through 1982. Emphasis on cooptable networks
and a precipitating crisis.
- Lecture notes
- David Snow, Louis Zurcher, Sheldon Ekland-Olson, "Social Movements:
A Microstructural Approach to Differential Recruitment." ASR 45:
787-801. 1980. People are recruited through social networks. . Stable
- Staggenborg, S. (1998). "Social Movement Communities and Cycles
of Protest: The Emergence and Maintenance of a Local Women's Movement."
Social Problems 45(2): 180-204. Movement communities developed as a
context, communities maintain movements. (HTM
copy of text.)
- Whittier, Nancy "Political Generations, Micro-Cohorts, and the
Transformation of Social Movements". American Sociological Review;
1997, 62, 5, Oct, 760-778. Cohort replacement and movement change.
- Pamela E. Oliver. 1989. "Bringing the Crowd Back In: The Nonorganizational
Elements of Social Movements." Research in Social Movements, Conflict
and Change 11: 1-30. Showing how crowds and consciousness can be integrated
in collective action and social movement theory. Big
PDF file (4MB) Smaller Files (copy of pre-publication manuscript):
RTF file PDF
- Roger Gould. 1991. "Multiple Networks and Mobilization in the
Paris Commune, 1871." American Sociological Review 45: 787-801.
- Zhao, Dingxin. "Ecologies of Social Movements: Student Mobilization
during the 1989 Prodemocracy Movement in Beijing" American Journal
of Sociology; 1998, 103, 6, May, 1493-1529. Networks, space. Stable
C. Organizations. Arguments about what is the best form of movement
organization, competition between organizations, professionalization.
( Was assigned for Oct 18. We will discuss Oct 23. Main points Will
be on Exam #1)
- * GJ pp165-168 overview of organizations; box defines key terms.
- Lecture notes on main
points of these readings (and others)
- * GJ15 John McCarthy and Mayer Zald. Social Movement Organizations.
(From "Resource Mobilization and Social Movements." American
Journal of Sociology 82 (May, 1977): 1212-1242.) This selection emphasizes
organizational concepts and summarizes the resource mobilization perspective.
- *GJ16, . Elisabeth S. Clemens. Organizational Repertoires (From Organizational
Repertoires And Institutional Change: Women's Groups And The Transformation
Of U.S. Politics, 1890-1920) This selection emphasizes organizational
choices and how they evolve through political action.
- *GJ17. Transnational Environmental Activism (From Politics Beyond
The State: Environmental Activism And World Civic Politics): Paul Wapner.
- *GJ18. Affinity Groups And The Movement Against Corporate Globalization
(From After Seattle): William Finnegan. Affinity groups and decentralized
organizations are a growing phenomenon.
- P. Bert Klandermans. 1990. "Linking the 'Old' and the 'New'
Movement Networks in the Netherlands. In Russell J. Dalton and Manfred
Kuechler, eds., Challenging the Political Order, pages 122-136. Alliance
and conflict systems in multi-organizational fields.
- Suzanne Staggenborg. 1988. "The Consequences of Professionalization
and Formalization in the Pro-Choice Movement." American Sociological
Review 53 (Aug): 585-606. Professionals and entrepreneurs are different
roles. Entrepreneurs found movement organizations, professionals stabilize
them. Comparative study of many organizations.
NOTE: Exam 1 (October 25) covers material through this point
Exam #1 review sheet
October 30. Loose ends. This class will be a discussion of themes
from prior readings on organization that we did not have time to dig into
plus a look to the next classes on strategy and tactics.
- I will also summarize the arguments from Jo Freeman's The Tyranny
of Structurelessness. Web
page copy Word
document for download
& Marwell Mobilizing Technologies for Collective Action is about
the dilemmas of paid vs volunteer activism
VI. Tactics/strategies: interactions between movements and their opponents.
Repertoires of action, counter-movement pairs, repression dynamics, violence,
terrorism. Nov 1 - November 8. (Note: I am re-working the second
half of the course and may change the order of items after Nov 6 to allow
time for some topics I think are especially interesting.)
A. What Movements Do (Read items 1-5 for Nov 1 ) Central Discussion
topic is logic of disruptive tactics and civil disobedience.
- GL pp 221-4, ideas of repertoires of action and strategy
- Lecture notes on ideas of repertoires of action & constraints
on tactics + an empirical inventory of tactics. Word
- * Meyer, Chapter 5 “The Strategy and Tactics of Social Protest”
- *Meyer, Chapter 6, “Civil Disobedience”
- * GJ20. Saul D. Alinsky. Protest Tactics (From Rules For Radicals).
Alinsky was an extremely influential community organizer who founded
influential organizationad and wrote many books directed to activists.
This short selection emphasizes some of his direct-action tactics. Alinsky's
"rules" are reprinted on the web in many places, both on activist/anarchist
sites AND on business/administration sites which emphasize how to prepare
for and respond to Alinskyist tactics.
- An example of an
anti-activist site for public adminstrators
example of a pro-activist site listing the "rules"
- Professor Steven Hull, Cabrillo College (California), has on-line
lecture notes on
Saul Alinsky's Rules for Radicals. You have to page down to the
bottom of this page to get to the list of Alinksy sections. Link
to his "tactics" lecture notes"
- GJ21. Aldon Morris. Tactical Innovation In The Civil Rights Movement
(From The Origins Of The Civil Rights Movement). Short history of the
evolution of the sit-in in the CRM
- McAdam, Doug (1983). "Tactical Innovation and the Pace of Insurgency."
American Sociological Review 48(6): 735-754. PDF File This was a crucial
article setting off a lot of this analysis. Argues that upsurges in
mobilization are due to tactical innovations, which are brought down
by regimes learning how to respond.
B. Policing protests & policing the oppressed (Nov. 6 & 8)
- * Oliver’s
paper Crime and Repression
- Donatella Della Porta and Herbert Reiter, editors. Policing Protest:
The Control of Mass Demonstrations in Western Democracies. University
of Minnesota Press. 1998. This collection has excellent articles.
[[This material will be covered in lecture. These articles are in the
course library reserves and also in the password-protected course site.]]
a. Introduction (della Porta & Reiter, Policing of protest in Western
democracies) This is in electronic library reserves. Local
copy password protected
b. *Chapter 2 (McPhail et al., Policing protest in the United States:
1960-1995 ) This is in electronic library reserves. Local
copy (password protected)
c. Chapter 10 (della PortaPolice knowledge and protest policing)
This is in electronic library reserves. Local
copy password protected
5. White, R. W. (1999). “Comparing State Repression of Pro-State
Vigilantes and Anti-State Insurgents: Northern Ireland, 1972-75.”
Mobilization 4(2): 189-202. Secondary empirical & statistical data
are drawn on to compare the repression of pro-state paramilitary violence
with that of anti-state insurgent violence in Northern Ireland, 1972-1975.
(In library reserves) .
C. Case Study of Movement Tactics, Repression, News Coverage, Political
Context: The Battle of Seattle. November 13-15.
- Video: "This is What Democracy Looks Like" compiles a narrative
of the "Battle of Seattle" from footage shot by protesters.
Running time 72 minutes. We watched this in class November 13.
- Discussion of video versus news coverage. November 15. Web site includes
a sample of news coverage from the time as well as articles about the
- * Smith, Jackie. (2001). Globalizing Resistance: The Battle of Seattle
and the Future of Social Movements. Mobilization 6(1): 1-19. Local
copy. This study examines the participants, activities, & political
context of the "Battle of Seattle." It explores the transitional
activist linkages & suggests that a division of labor was presented
whereby groups with local & national ties took on mobilization roles
while groups with routinized transnational ties provided information
& frames for the struggle.
- * Patrick Gillham & Gary Marx, "Complexity and Irony in Policing
and Protesting: The World Trade Organization in Seattle." Social
Justice, Summer 2000, 27, 2 p. 212. Local
PDF copy. More of a "birds' eye" view of police &
protester decision-making and the unintended consequences of everyone's
- * Newsweek, December 13, 1999,, U.S. Edition, NATIONAL AFFAIRS; Pg.
words, The Siege of Seattle, By Kenneth Klee; With Patricia King and
Katrina Woznicki. A mainstream news magazine's account. Text
- Other examples of news coverage of the event.
- William Solomon. "More form than substance: Press coverage
of the WTO protests in Seattle." Monthly Review May 2000; 52,
1. p. 12. Critiques news coverage in Los Angeles Times and New York
Times. Local PDF
- JD Charlton. "Talking Seattle!" Radical Society [Socialist
Review] 2001, 28, 3/4. p 183. Local
PDF copy. A descriptive summary of what happened at the protest
and why people were there.
- Walden Bello. "Lilliputians Rising -- 2000: The Year of
Global Protest Agasint Corporate Globalization." Multinational
Monitor Jan/Feb 2001; 22, 1/2. Local
PDF Copy A summary of issues in the year after Seattle. BIG
FILE with pictures.
- In These Times, January 10, 2000, SPECIAL REPORT; Pg. 14, 2578
words, AFTER SEATTLE, BY DAVID MOBERG. A commentary on the significance
of the event. Text
- In These Times, January 10, 2000, SPECIAL REPORT; Pg. 18, 940
words, ANARCHY IN THE USA, BY DAVID GRAEBER; Challenges assumptions
that anarchists are "violent." Text
- Newsweek, December 13, 1999,, U.S. Edition, NATIONAL AFFAIRS;
Pg. 36, 1691
words, The New Radicals, By Michael Elliott; With Keith Naughton
in Detroit, John McCormick and Peter Annin in Chicago, Thomas Hayden
in New York, Kenneth Klee and Patricia King in Seattle, and Debra
Gwartney in Eugene. Mainstream news magazine's coverage of the activists.
- Newsweek International, November 22, 1999, 2241 words, BUSINESS:
ATTACKING FREE TRADE: WHY ARE SO MANY GREENS AND WORKERS' RIGHTS
ACTIVISTS HEADING FOR SEATTLE? pre-protest coverage. text
- Newsweek, December 6, 1999,, Atlantic Edition, WORLD VIEW; Pg.
4, 910 words, Whose Cause Is It, Anyway?, By Pranay Gupte; Gupte
is editor and publisher of The Earth Times. A pre-protest editorial
arguing that NGOs are disconnected from their constituencies. text
- The Economist, December 04, 1999, , U.S. Edition, 1308 words,
The new trade war, seattle. Short news article, identifies mixture
of types of protesters and issues. text
- Background on the WTO
- World Trade Organization web site.
This public-oriented site describes the structure of the WTO, contains
rebuttals to "myths" about the WTO, describes current
issues, etc. including defenses of its structure & the value
of free trade. http://www.wto.org/index.htm
- Two anti-WTO sites with lots of information:
Exchange, an NGO I don't know much about, seems fairly commercial
& professionalized but encouraging anti-WTO activism, with
clear layouts and information you can download
Observatory is a web site about WTO & related issues
put out by the Institute for
Agriculture and Trade Policy which describes itself as supporting
family farms, rural communities and ecosystems. Its home page
lists a number of different projects on agriculture & the
D. News as data, news as actor. News coverage of movements and repression
in shaping movement cycles. (If you are doing reading notes, please
do NOT waste your time taking pages and pages of notes about all these
articles. Instead use the abstracts a guides to what the main points
are and then mostly "read" the tables and graphs and focus on
the summaries of the results. I will go over this in class and highlight
the main points.) Read the 4 *'d articles for November 20. Read
the first two with *'s, and for the two Oliver articles, skim them more
lightly trying to see if you can get the main points, which I will discuss
more in class.
- *GJ26. The Media In The Unmaking Of The New Left (From The Whole World
Is Watching): Todd Gitlin. [My notes on Gitlin are in a file for Nov
- My lecture notes: News as Data &
Actor (document file, outline only, 9 pages) PDF file
of slide shots, includes lots of graphs, big file
Selection Processes. Articles about factors predicting whether
protests and demonstrations get news coverage. (I will summarize the
findings from these articles in lecture. If you are doing pre-class reading
notes, you should focus on the RESULTS of studies, what were their FINDINGS,
not on the literature review at the beginning of the article. That is,
just skim and do NOT take notes on the literature review. Focus on the
data. You will also want to review the lecture slides, as soon as I get
- * McCarthy, J. D., C. McPhail, et al. (1996). "Images of Protest:
Dimensions of Selection Bias in Media Coverage of Washington Demonstrations,
1982 and 1991." American Sociological Review 61(3):
478-499. PDF file
The first study of its type.
- (*) Pamela E. Oliver and Daniel J. Myers. "How Events Enter the Public
Sphere: Conflict, Location and Sponsorship in Local Newspaper Coverage
of Public Events." American Journal of Sociology 105:
38-87. 1999. PDF
Legible copy of figures (those in the article copy are illegible)This
one assesses coverage of protest events relative to others: conflict
gets you in the news, location and sponsorship matter. Non-conflictual
message events have very low rates of coverage.
- (*) "Political Processes and Local Newspaper Coverage of Protest Events:
From Selection Bias to Triadic Interactions" (Pamela E. Oliver and Gregory
M. Maney) American Journal of Sociology 106 (2 September)
2000: 463-505 PDF
file. This one examines only protest events: ties to institutional
politics increase coverage, but events compete with the legislature
for space in the news hole.
- Mueller, Carol. "International Press Coverage of East German Protest
Events, 1989" American Sociological Review; 1997, 62,
5, Oct, 820-832. Comparison of six nations' coverage in light of media
selection models. PDF
file Proximity to the event mattes.
- Mueller, Carol. "Media Measurement Models of Protest Event Data."
Mobilization; 1997, 2, 2, Sept, 165-184. Mueller, Media
measurement models of protest event data A theoretical article that
gives a very clear review of the relevant issues.
- Almeida and Lichbach, "To the Internet, From the Internet: Comparative
Media Coverage of Transnational Protests." Mobilization In Library
Reserves Compares news coverage in different sources.
Media and Mobilization. Articles about how the media aid or
deter mobilization. Again, I'll be summarizing results from this work
- Sampedro, Victor The Media Politics of Social Protest. Mobilization;
1997, 2, 2, Sept, 185-205. Spain, media opportunities usually
coincide with political opportunities, but sometimes there is a chance
in the media. Sampedro in library reserves,
- Roscigno, V. J. and W. F. Danaher (2001). "Media and Mobilization:
The Case of Radio and Southern Textile Worker Insurgency, 1929 to 1934."
American Sociological Review 66(1): 21-48. A nice piece,
showing that worker-oriented radio stations facilitated insurgency.
Available in JSTOR.
- Smith, J., J. D. McCarthy, et al. (2001). "From Protest to Agenda
Building: Description Bias in Media Coverage of Protest Events in Washington,
D.C." Social Forces 79(4): 1397-1423. Protest coverage
focus on events, not issues, may undermine movement agendas. PDF
- Rohlinger, D. A. (2002). Framing the Abortion Debate: Organizational
Resources, Media Strategies, and Movement-Countermovement Dynamics.
The Sociological Quarterly 43(4): 479-507. How opposed SMOs, the National
Organization for Women (NOW) & Concerned Women for America (CWA),
get media coverage during critical moments of the abortion debate. Strategic
construction of frames, responses to opponents, success in getting coverage.
- Wisler, D. and M. Giugni (1999). “Under the Spotlight: The Impact
of Media Attention on Protest Policing.” Mobilization 4(2): 171-187.
- Davenport, C. and M. Eads (2001). “Cued to Coerce or Coercing
Cues? An Exploration of Dissident Rhetoric and Its Relationship to Political
Repression.” Mobilization 6(2): 151-171.
Note: November 27 was an open discussion that mostly talked about alcohol
For November 29 Central discussion topic is difference vs sameness in
identity deployment. These articles are about the gay movement.
Both are in the book. Note: We also did not discuss the Gitlin article
assigned before break, so that is relevant, too. (In class I said that
"reading notes" on these articles would be accepted as on time
next Tuesday as well.
- * GJ30. Joshua Gamson. The Dilemmas Of Identity Politics (From
Must Identity Movements Self-Destruct? A Queer Dilemma. Social Problems
1995). Fixed identities are both the basis for oppression and the
basis for political power. I put this article here because it and
the Bernstein article are taking different angles on the same issue.
- * GJ22. Mary Bernstein. The Strategic Uses Of Identity In The
Lesbian And Gay Movement: Bernstein, Mary. "Celebration and
Suppression: The Strategic Uses of Identity by the Lesbian and Gay
Movement." American Journal of Sociology; 1997, 103, 3, Nov,
531-565. Identities as public expressions of yourself which you
can deploy for political purposes, stressing either similarity or
difference with the dominant group.
notes on Gitlin (from above), Gamson and Bernstein.
For December 4 & 6, We will come back to political structures and
outcomes. This is a lot of reading and I am in the process right
now of re-reading the material to tell you which things to focus more
or less on.
- My older lecture notes on "outcomes"
which will be a major basis for my updated lecture on outcomes next
week. I'll post the updated lecture notes when they are ready. Here
are the newer notes.
notes on the readings in this section, including guides to what
to focus on.
- These two short readings are important and should be read fully
- * GJ 315-317 includes a definition of "abeyance" AND
GJ 347-9, explains radical flank effects and other issues regarding
- * GJ30. William A. Gamson. Defining Movement 'Success' (From
The Strategy Of Social Protest)
- GJ31,. Edwin Amenta, Kathleen Dunleavy, And Mary Bernstein. The Case
Of Huey Long And The New Deal (From “Stolen Thunder? Huey Long's
Share Our Wealth, Political Mediation, And The Second New Deal”)
Uses Gamson's categories to discuss the success of a particular movement.
My notes suggest focusing on theoretical material pp. 358ff.
- * Meyer, Chapter 7 “The State and Protests” My notes suggest
specific material to focus on, particularly 126-132; I suggest you read
the case studies more lightly, to get a sense of the point but not to
worry about details.
- Meyer, Chapter 8 “When Everybody Protests” (this is about
counter-movements). We have already covered most of this material already;
it is relevant, but it does not need to be read as new material. See
- * Meyer, Chapter 9, “The Policy Connection” My notes
suggest emphasizing pp. 171-180.
- Meyer, Chapter 10. Looks to the future, a wrap-up. Worth reading.
We will be discussing these issues on the last day of class (after the
quiz) as we look to the future.
- Andrews, Kenneth T "The Impacts of Social Movements on the Political
Process: The Civil Rights Movement and Black Electoral Politics in Mississippi".
American Sociological Review; 1997, 62, 5, Oct, 800-819. I'll be adding
a summary of this article to my lecture. It shows that mobilization
in one time period affects outcomes in later time periods. It is a good
and important article.
NOTE: Last objective exam is December 11. Last class is December
13, after the test, and will be used for a more open-ended discussion
of what we have learned and where we go from here.
Questions or Comments? Email Oliver@ssc.wisc.edu.
December 8, 2007
© University of Wisconsin.